The paper is a case study for the effectiveness of hand-held and head-mounted AR interaction for increasing teaching and learning, in the specific field of marine ecology education. This system will serve as an assisting tool for the teaching activity of marine ecology guide to improve the learning effectiveness of the learners. A total of 191 questionnaires were collected, there were 161 valid questionnaires, among which including 70 AR questionnaires, 91 AR2VR questionnaires. There were 30 incomplete invalid questionnaires. This study adopts the pre-test and post-test variance design of the quasi-experimental research method to explore the learners’ flow experience effect, technology acceptance model, activity involvement and learning effect under different guidance modes, as well as their attitudes towards the use and acceptance of the guidance system. The experiments are performed and analyzed in detail. The study results indicate that (a) the learning achievements of the students differed between before and after the AR and VR mobile guidance activities, (b) both the AR and VR guidance modes enhanced the flow experience of visitors, (c) all aspects of the technology acceptance models in both groups had positive effects on the flow experience, (d) all aspects of the activity involvement of both groups had positive effects on flow experience, and (e) most learners exhibited positive attitudes toward and acceptance of using AR and VR mobile guidance systems.
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